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HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Analysis)
HAZOP Study is used to examine the possibilities of hazards and operability issues occurred by deviations from the design intent of existing or new system.
Where it is Used?
Generally, HAZOP methods are used in chemical production /piping systems (places where several large containers and miles of pipers are used). HAZOP aids to identify and document hazards and operability issues. HAZOP studies help to check the integrity of the design /procedure adhere to safe and operability.
Process of HAZOP Study
HAZOP Study investigates every element in a process systematically. The goal is to identify potential situations that may cause the element to pose a hazard or stop the operability of the entire process.
This involves in 4 important steps,
• Forming a HAZOP team
• Identifying the elements of the system
• Considering possible variations in operating parameters
• Identifying any hazards or failure points
Once the 4 steps are completed successfully, the resulting information helps to enhance the system. The most appropriate way to apply the result HAZOP study lies in the work nature of the system
Form a HAZOP Team
The primary step to perform HAZOP is, a group of member form together as a team in which the team members should hold expertise knowledge in various platforms like operation/ maintenance/instrumentation /engineering and process design. There is no place for people with no knowledge or experience in this process as the understanding and knowledge of the system in every part of the process is much important and mandatory.
Identify Each Element and its Parameters
The formed HAZOP team creates an effective plan to complete the process, identify each and every single step /element. This usually indulges in using (P&ID) Piping and Instrument Diagram or plant model to examine all sections and components of a process. For every single element, the team identifies planned operating parameters of concern system viz. pressure, flow rate, temperature, vibration, etc…
Consider the Effects of Variation
The team considers the effect of deviation from normal for every parameter,
For example, “What would happen if the pressure at this valve was too high? What if the pressure was unexpectedly low? Would the rate of change in pressure (delta-p) pose its problems here?” Don’t forget to consider the ways that each element interacts with others over time; for example, “What would happen if the valve was opened too early, or too late?”
Identify Hazards and Failure Points
In case if the result of variation is a danger to employees /production process, this will cause a great problem. Documenting this and estimating the negative impacts of failure at that point after then determining the chances of that particular failure: is there actual cause for the harmful variation? evaluating the already existing safeguards and protection system and evaluating the capability to handle deviations which ever have been considered